Basswood Leaf

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LEAVES | Complexity | Arrangement | Shape | Venation | Apices | Bases | Margins | Lobes

TWIGS | Bud Types | Bud Scales | Scars | Surface | Pith

FRUITS | Types

 

Fruit Morphology: Fruit Types

Fruits are the reproductive part of a plant containing the seed.

Achene simple, dry indehiscent one-seeded fruit
Samara simple, dry, indehiscent fruit with a wing
Nut simple, dry indehiscent, one-celled, one-seeded fruit with a hard wall
Follicle simple, dry, dehiscent fruit that splits on one line of suture
Legume simple, dry, dehiscent fruit that splits on two lines of suture and is in the Fabaceae
Capsule simple, dry, dehiscent fruit that splits on two lines or more lines of suture
Pome simple, fleshy fruit with a woody or papery wall around the interior seeds
Drupe simple, fleshy fruit with a stony pit that is not separated from the fleshy fruit
Berry simple, entirely fleshy fruit with many seeds
Hesperidium simple, fleshy fruit with a leathery exterior and radial sections
Aggregate Fruit compound fruit formed from a single flower
Multiple Fruit compound fruit formed from many flowers

 

Hold cursor over photos to view species name and info

 

Achene

simple, dry indehiscent one-seeded fruit

  • Platanaceae Platanus occidentalis - American sycamore: Fruit, aggregate of achenes.
  • Platanaceae Platanus occidentalis - American sycamore: Fruit, aggregate of achenes.

 

Samara

simple, dry, indehiscent fruit with a wing

  • Aceraceae Acer floridanum - Florida maple: Fruit, double samaras.
  • Aceraceae Acer negundo- boxelder: Fruit, double samaras that form trash-like clusters in female trees.
  • Oleaceae Fraxinus americana - white ash: Fruit, samaras, seed will be much rounder than green ash.
  • Oleaceae Fraxinus pennsylvanica - green ash: Fruit, samaras, seed is more needle-like as compared to white ash.

 

Nut

simple, dry indehiscent, one-celled, one-seeded fruit with a hard wall

  • Juglandaceae Carya aquatica - water hickory: Nut in a fuzzy yellow to brown sutured husk.  Nut is distinctly flattened longitudinally along one axis.
  • Juglandaceae Carya myristiciformis - nutmeg hickory: Nut shaped similar to a pecan with winged sutures.
  • Rubiaceae Cephalanthus occidentalis - common buttonbush: Fruit, aggregate of nutlets as seen in spring and early summer.
  • Juglandaceae Juglans nigra - black walnut: Fruit, nut, green flesh eventually wearing off to reveal hard, husked nut.  Green flesh causes a black stain.
  • Fagaceae Quercus alba - white oak: Fruit, nut, acorns tend to have bowl-shaped caps covered with warty, corky scales.
  • Fagaceae Quercus lyrata - overcup oak: Fruit, nut, acorns, cap covers almost the entire nut and has warty, corky scales.
  • Fagaceae Quercus macrocarpa - bur oak: Fruit, nut, acorn, largest of the acorns with cap thick with threadlike scales.
  • Fagaceae Quercus shumardii - Shumard oak: Fruit, nut, acorns, largest among the native red oaks.

 

Follicle

simple, dry, dehiscent fruit that splits on one line of suture

  • Magnoliaceae Magnolia virginiana - sweetbay: Fruit, aggregate of follicles.  Red seeds hang from each follicle on a white latex string.
  • Rutaceae Zanthoxylum clava-herculis - Hercules' club: Fruit, follicle, clustered in terminal infructescences.

 

Legume

simple, dry, dehiscent fruit that splits on two lines of suture and is in the Fabaceae

  • Fabaceae Albizia julibrissin - silktree: Fruit, legume, note the distinct indentations around each seed.
  • Fabaceae Baptisia nuttalliana - Nuttall's wild indigo: Fruit, legume with typically round shape and elongated tip.  All parts of plant eventually turn black upon senescence.
  • Fabaceae Cercis canadensis - eastern redbud: Fruit, legume, sometimes attached directly to a relatively large branch.
  • Fabaceae Gleditsia aquatica - waterlocust: Fruit, legume, shaped like a human lung, much smaller than a honeylocust legume.
  • gledtria_fruit2

 

Capsule

simple, dry, dehiscent fruit that splits on two lines or more lines of suture

  • Hippocastanaceae Aesculus pavia - red buckeye: Fruit, capsule, this potato shaped husk opens to show 1 to 3 shiny brown seeds.
  • Celastraceae Euonymus americanus - strawberry bush: Fruit, capsule, texture and color lend this shrub its namesake.
  • Lythraceae Lagerstroemia indica - crapemyrtle: Fruit, capsule.
  • Lythraceae Lagerstroemia indica - crapemyrtle: Fruit, capsule.
  • Hamamelidaceae Liquidambar styraciflua - sweetgum: Fruit, multiple of capsules.
  • Euphorbiaceae Triadica sebifera - Chinese tallowtree: Fruit, capsule, reminescent of popcorn, source of vegetable tallow.

 

Pome

simple, fleshy fruit with a woody or papery wall around the interior seeds

  • Rosaceae Crataegus spp. - hawthorn: Fruit, pome, red to orange.
  • Rosaceae Pyrus calleryana - Callery pear: Fruit, pome, edible but small often exceptionally tart.

 

Drupe

simple, fleshy fruit with a stony pit that is not separated from the fleshy fruit

  • Araliaceae Aralia spinosa - devil's walkingstick: Fruit, drupes in clusters found at the tops of stems.
  • Ulmaceae Celtis laevigata - sugarberry: Fruit, drupe, orange to purple in color, sweet taste but little pulp due to large stone.
  • Cornaceae Cornus florida - flowering dogwood: Fruit, drupe, initially green, becoming bright red.
  • Rhamnaceae Frangula caroliniana - Carolina buckthorn: Fruit, drupe, black.
  • Styracaceae Halesia diptera - two-wing silverbell: Fruit, druped, two prominent wings, occasionally with ridges opposing the wings.
  • Aquifoliaceae Ilex decidua - possumhaw: Fruits, drupe, red to orange, persistent after leaves fall.
  • Oleaceae Ligustrum japonicum - Japanese privet: Fruit, drupe, clustered.
  • Cornaceae Nyssa aquatica - water tupelo: Fruit, drupe, larger than blackgum.
  • Anacardiaceae Rhus glabra - smooth sumac: Fruit, drupes, clustered.
  • Caprifoliaceae Viburnum dentatum - arrowwood viburnum: Fruits, drupes, bluish black, clustered.

 

Berry

simple, entirely fleshy fruit with many seeds

  • Annonaceae Asimina parviflora - dwarf pawpaw: Fruit, berry, soft banana or custard texture.
  • Ebenaceae Diospyros virginiana - common persimmon: Fruit, berry, orange and appearing like a small tomato. Edible after first frost, extremely astringent and drying if eaten too early before ripening.
  • Vitaceae Vitis aestivalis - summer grape: Fruit, berry, grapes found in clusters, edible.
  • Vitaceae Vitis aestivalis - summer grape: Fruit, berry, grapes found in clusters, edible, green when maturing, purple to red when mature.

 

Hesperidium

simple, fleshy fruit with a leathery exterior and radial sections

  • Rutaceae Poncirus trifoliata - trifoliate orange: Fruit, hesperidium, extremely sour.

 

Aggregate

compound fruit formed from a single flower

  • Magnoliaceae Magnolia grandiflora - southern magnolia: Fruit, aggregate of follicles, seeds are bright red and attached to fruit with a white, stretchy, latex string.
  • Magnoliaceae Magnolia grandiflora - southern magnolia: Fruit, aggregate of follicles, seeds are bright red and attached to fruit with a white, stretchy, latex string.

 

Multiple

compound fruit formed from many flowers

  • Platanaceae Platanus occidentalis - American sycamore: Fruit, aggregate of achenes.
  • Platanaceae Platanus occidentalis - American sycamore: Fruit, aggregate of achenes.

All definitions are from J. W. Hardin, D. J. Leopold, and F. M. White. (2001). Harlow & Harrar's Textbook of Dendrology. Ninth edition. McGraw Hill, New York, New York, 534 pp. ISBN: 0073661716.

LEAVES | Complexity | Arrangement | Shape | Venation | Apices | Bases | Margins | Lobes

TWIGS | Bud Types | Bud Scales | Scars | Surface | Pith

FRUITS | Types

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Site Statistics

Species: 207 | Genera: 122 | Families: 67

All Photos: 2063 | Leaf Photos: 622 | Twig Photos: 511 | Bark Photos: 353 | Fruit Photos: 274 | Photos per Species: 10.0

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