Basswood Leaf

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LEAVES | Complexity | Arrangement | Shape | Venation | Apices | Bases | Margins | Lobes

TWIGS | Bud Types | Bud Scales | Scars | Surface | Pith

FRUITS | Types

 

Leaf Morphology: Margins

the edge of a leaf blade

Revolute rolled under, but only at the margin
Entire smooth
Repand slightly and irregularly wavy
Sinuate shallowly indented, wavy in a horizontal plane
Undulate wavy in a vertical plane, also called crisped
Crenate with rounded or blunt teeth
Crenulate small crenations, or small teeth on rounded protrusions
Serrate sharp teeth pointing towards the apex of the blade
Serrulate small serrations
Doubly Serrate larger serrations are again serrated on their margins
Dentate sharp teeth pointing outward
Denticulate small dentations
Aculeate spiny margined with the teeth long and prickly

 

Hold cursor over photos to view species name and info

 

Revolute

rolled under, but only at the margin

  • Cyrillaceae Cyrilla racemiflora - swamp titi: Leaf, alternate, simple, thick and leathery.
  • Magnoliaceae Magnolia grandiflora - southern magnolia: Leaf, alternate, simple, thick and leathery (coriaceous), with fuzzy back surface.
  • Fagaceae Quercus virginiana - live oak: Leaf, alternate, simple, unlobed, evergreen, margin curls under (revolute).

 

Entire

smooth

  • Aceraceae Acer floridanum - Florida maple: Leaf, opposite, simple.
  • Annonaceae Asimina parviflora - dwarf pawpaw: Leaf, alternate, simple obovate with acuminate tip.
  • Rubiaceae Cephalanthus occidentalis - common buttonbush: Leaf, opposite or whorled, simple.
  • Fabaceae Cercis canadensis - eastern redbud: Leaf, alternate, simple, showing distinct heart shape (cordate).
  • Fabaceae Erythrina herbacea - southeastern coralbean: Leaf, alternate, trifoliately compound, distinctly lobed leaflets.
  • Magnoliaceae Liriodendron tulipifera - yellow-poplar: Leaf, alternate, simple, truncate apex with two basal lobes form a distinct shape.  Sometimes smells spicy when crushed.

 

Repand

slightly and irregularly wavy

  • Rhamnaceae Berchemia scandens - Alabma supplejack: Leaf, alternate, simple, with typically wavy margin and notably parallel venation.
  • Rhamnaceae Berchemia scandens - Alabma supplejack: Leaf, alternate, simple, with typically wavy margin and notably parallel venation.
  • Aquifoliaceae Ilex vomitoria - yaupon: Leaves, alternate, simple, evergreen, wavy teeth on margins.

 

Sinuate

shallowly indented, wavy in a horizontal plane

  • Fagaceae Quercus michauxii - swamp chestnut oak: Leaves, alternate, simple, unlobed, with crenate margins, obovate shape, lighter colored beneath.
  • Caprifoliaceae Viburnum dentatum - arrowwood viburnum: Leaves, opposite, simple, deltoid to orbicular in shape, coarsely toothed, often fuzzy.
  • Vitaceae Vitis aestivalis - summer grape: Leaf, alternate, simple, ranging in size and shape, from round and unlobed to deltoid and lobed.

 

Undulate

wavy in a vertical plane, also called crisped

  • Bignoniaceae Bignonia capreolata - crossvine: Leaves, opposite, trifoliately compound.  Two leaflets have a cordate base, the third leaflet is always a tendril.
  • Apocynaceae Trachelospermum difforme - climbing dogbane: Leaf, opposite, simple, rounder than Gelsemium sempervirens, not as fuzzy as Lonicera japonica, wet site.

 

Crenate

with rounded or blunt teeth

  • Fagaceae Quercus michauxii - swamp chestnut oak: Leaves, alternate, simple, unlobed, with crenate margins, obovate shape, lighter colored beneath.
  • Fagaceae Quercus muehlenbergii - chinkapin oak: Leaf, alternate, simple, unlobed, margin crenate, back side lighter in color.

 

Crenulate

small crenations, or small teeth on rounded protrusions

  • Verbenaceae Callicarpa americana - American beautyberry: Leaf, opposite, simple, smells of perfume when crushed.
  • Ulmaceae Zelkova serrata - Japanese zelkova: Leaf, alternate, simple, base inequilateral, margin with distinctly crenulate margin.

 

Serrate

sharp teeth pointing towards the apex of the blade

  • Aceraceae Acer palmatum - Japanese maple: Leaves, opposite, simple.
  • Fagaceae Castanea pumila - chinkapin: Leaves, alternate, simple, distinct parallel venation with each vein ending in a large tooth.
  • Fagaceae Fagus grandifolia - American beech: Leaf, alternate, simple, parallel veins each ending in a small tooth.
  • Vitaceae Parthenocissus quinquefolia - Virginia creeper: Leaf, alternate, palmately compound, five leaflets, serrate margin.
  • Ulmaceae Planera aquatica - planertree: Leaves, alternate, simple, serrate margins, size varies widely.
  • Tiliaceae Tilia americana var. caroliniana - Carolina basswood: Leaves, alternate, simple, cordate in shape, margin coarsely serrate.

 

Serrulate

small serrations

  • Celastraceae Euonymus americanus - strawberry bush: Leaves, opposite, simple, narrow.
  • Grossulariaceae Itea virginica - Virginia sweetspire: Leaf, alternate, simple, oval shaped, serrate to serrulate margin.
  • Rosaceae Prunus angustifolia - Chickasaw plum: Leaf, alternate, simple, often clustered on short shoots, typical display folded longitudinally.

 

Doubly Serrate

larger serrations are again serrated on their margins

  • Betulaceae Betula nigra - river birch: Leaf, alternate, simple, doubly serrate margins, deltoid shape.
  • Ulmaceae Ulmus alata - winged elm: Leaf, alternate, simple, elliptically shaped, doubly serrate.
  • Ulmaceae Ulmus rubra - slippery elm: Leaf, alternate, simple, elliptically shaped, doubly serrate, very sandpapery (scabrous) both above and below.

 

Dentate

sharp teeth pointing outward

  • Bignoniaceae Campsis radicans - trumpet creeper: Leaf, opposite, pinnately compound, leaflets with toothed margins.
  • Vitaceae Nekemias arborea - peppervine: Leaf, alternate, bipinnately compound with a distinctly triangular overall leaf shape.
  • Anacardiaceae Rhus aromatica - fragrant sumac: Leaves, alternate, trifoliately compound, fragrant if crushed.  Catkin-like clustered flower buds are visible.
  • Caprifoliaceae Viburnum dentatum - arrowwood viburnum: Leaves, opposite, simple, deltoid to orbicular in shape, coarsely toothed, often fuzzy.
  • Vitaceae Vitis rotundifolia - muscadine grape: Leaf, alternate, simple, orbicular in shape, uniformly toothed, never reaching the maximum size that summer grape can attain.

 

Denticulate

small dentations

  • Rosaceae Aronia arbutifolia - red chokeberry: Leaf, alternate, simple, distinct serrulate margin, back with silver tomentum.
  • Rosaceae Aronia arbutifolia - red chokeberry: Leaf, alternate, simple, distinct serrulate margin, back with silver tomentum.
  • Grossulariaceae Itea virginica - Virginia sweetspire:  Leaf, alternate, simple, oval shaped, serrate to serrulate margin.
  • Moraceae Morus rubra - red mulberry: Leaf, alternate, simple, sandpapery texture (scabrous), variable in shape from unlobed to 5 lobes, serrate margin.
  • Caprifoliaceae Viburnum rufidulum - rusty blackhaw: Leaves, opposite, simple, shiny, serrate margin.

 

Aculeate

spiny margined with the teeth long and prickly

  • Aquifoliaceae Ilex coriacea - tall gallberry holly: Leaf, alternate, simple, evergreen, with one or several spines on the top half of the leaf margin, fewer than American holly.
  • Aquifoliaceae Ilex opaca - American holly: Leaf, alternate, simple, spines on margins, evergreen, thick and woody.
  • Aquifoliaceae Ilex opaca - American holly: Leaf, alternate, simple, spines on margins, evergreen, thick and woody.

All definitions are from J. W. Hardin, D. J. Leopold, and F. M. White. (2001). Harlow & Harrar's Textbook of Dendrology. Ninth edition. McGraw Hill, New York, New York, 534 pp. ISBN: 0073661716.

LEAVES | Complexity | Arrangement | Shape | Venation | Apices | Bases | Margins | Lobes

TWIGS | Bud Types | Bud Scales | Scars | Surface | Pith

FRUITS | Types

Hits: 29974

Site Statistics

Species: 207 | Genera: 122 | Families: 67

All Photos: 2063 | Leaf Photos: 622 | Twig Photos: 511 | Bark Photos: 353 | Fruit Photos: 274 | Photos per Species: 10.0

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