Basswood Leaf

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LEAVES | Complexity | Arrangement | Shape | Venation | Apices | Bases | Margins | Lobes

TWIGS | Bud Types | Bud Scales | Scars | Surface | Pith

FRUITS | Types

 

Twig Morphology: Surface Features

surface features are modifications of leaves, stipules, bark, and twigs that aid in identification

Thorns stems modified to form sharply pointed protrusions that can occur anywhere on a tree
Foliar Spines leaves modified to form a sharply pointed protrusion that only occurs at nodes
Stipular Spines stipules modified to form a sharply pointed protrusion that only occurs at nodes
Prickles sharply pointed protrusions that emerge from the epidermis or cortex (bark), usually on twigs  and small branches
Lenticels small, wartlike, round patches of loosely organized corky tissue thought to provide aeration to tissues beneath

 

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Thorns

stems modified to form sharply pointed protrusions that can occur anywhere on a tree

  • Rosaceae Crataegus spp. - hawthorn: Thorn, common on most hawthorns, up to several inches in length.
  • Fabaceae Gleditsia aquatica - waterlocust: Thorns, often branching, occur on trunks and small twigs.
  • Fabaceae Gleditsia triacanthos - honeylocust: Thorns, often branching, occur on trunks and small twigs.
  • Moraceae Maclura pomifera - osage-orange: Twig showing alternate leaf arrangement and foliar spines.  Spines only appear at nodes superposed to a leaf or leaf scar.
  • Smilacaceae Smilax bona-nox - saw greenbrier: Twig showing alternate leaf arrangement, thorns.
  • Smilacaceae Smilax rotundifolia - roundleaf greenbrier: Twig showing alternate leaf arrangement, thorns, and tendrils.

 

Foliar Spines

leaves modified to form a sharply pointed protrusion that only occurs at nodes

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Stipular Spines

stipules modified to form a sharply pointed protrusion that only occurs at nodes

  • Fabaceae Robinia pseudoacacia - black locust: Twig showing alternate leaf arrangement and paired stipular spines.  Spines are common, but are not present on every specimen.

 

Prickles

sharply pointed protrusions that emerge from the epidermis or cortex (bark), usually on twigs  and small branches

  • Araliaceae Aralia spinosa - devil's walkingstick: Twig, alternate leaf scars, heavily armed with prickles.
  • Rutaceae Zanthoxylum clava-herculis - Hercules' club: Twig showing alternate leaf arrangement and prickles.

 

Lenticels

small, wartlike, round patches of loosely organized corky tissue thought to provide aeration to tissues beneath

  • Simaroubaceae Ailanthus altissima - tree of heaven: Twig, showin
  • Betulaceae Betula nigra - river birch: Preformed catkins often f
  • Meliaceae Melia azedarach - Chinaberrytree: Branch showing lenti
  • Rosaceae Prunus angustifolia - Chickasaw plum: Bark on a tree 1
  • Anacardiaceae Rhus glabra - smooth sumac: Twig showing alternate
  • Euphorbiaceae Triadica sebifera - Chinese tallowtree: Bark on a

All definitions are from J. W. Hardin, D. J. Leopold, and F. M. White. (2001). Harlow & Harrar's Textbook of Dendrology. Ninth edition. McGraw Hill, New York, New York, 534 pp. ISBN: 0073661716.

LEAVES | Complexity | Arrangement | Shape | Venation | Apices | Bases | Margins | Lobes

TWIGS | Bud Types | Bud Scales | Scars | Surface | Pith

FRUITS | Types

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Site Statistics

Species: 207 | Genera: 122 | Families: 67

All Photos: 2063 | Leaf Photos: 622 | Twig Photos: 511 | Bark Photos: 353 | Fruit Photos: 274 | Photos per Species: 10.0

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